Bone Remodeling Process: Mechanics

PDF Bone Remodeling Process: Mechanics, Biology, and Numerical Modeling 1st Edition

Bone Repair Process: Mechanics, Biology, Numerical Modeling pdf free provides an overview of the literature. The first part of the book analyzes bones in normal physiological conditions, summarizes the players in relevant roles and the factors reported in the last 20 years, and the second part focuses on their respective attack vectors. Analyze the morbidity of bone disease. Part 3 focuses on models that use the finite element method in bone biomechanics research, while developing bone re-formulations that can provide information that is less susceptible to direct measurements. Dedicated to the mathematical description of formation. You can also check Orthopedic books here

This book Bone Remodeling Process – 1st Edition creates a global image of the complex communication network established between the various actors in remodeling, based on the overwhelming evidence of control revealed in recent years, in addition to visualizing the defects of remodeling and possible treatments in each case. It also regroups the models, allowing readers to analyze and evaluate the mechanical and biological properties of bones. This book details the cellular mechanisms that allow the bone to adapt its microarchitecture to the requirements of the human body, which is the main topic of bone biology and presents evolution.

Detail:

Book Name Bone Remodeling Process: Mechanics, Biology, and Numerical Modeling
Author  Rabeb Ben Kahla, Abdelwahed Barkaoui 
Edition 1st
Language English
Format PDF
Category Medical

 

Overview:

Before downloading PDF Bone Remodeling Process we need to check overview. The remodeling process is an integral part of the calcium homeostatic system and provides a crucial mechanism for the removal of old bones, as well as for the repair of bone damage and adaptation to physical stress, thus maintaining the mechanical integrity of the skeleton. The remodeling process manifests itself at anatomically distinct sites known as bony multicellular units, with each unit functioning asynchronously and independently of other units throughout the skeleton. However, it should be noted that the bony multicellular units in cortical and trabecular bones differ greatly in their structure, as well as in the way bone is removed and replaced. The concept of the bone remodeling compartment consists of initiating the remodeling process within a canopy, and in this compartment, intercellular communication occurs between the component bone cells, from the vascular and endothelial cells, and probably from the immune cells that reach the remodeling sites through the blood supply.

Bones occupy about 15% of total body weight, a fraction that does not deserve any consequential interpretation. Interestingly, ambulation, ventilation, and protection of the human body are primarily associated with bone, highlighting the mechanical function of bone. Therefore, bone represents a structural material with mechanical characteristics that resemble any other material with a mineral-based structure, even if the process of discovery and investigation of the relationship between microcomponents and bulk material is opposite for the two. types of material. After more than 2000 years of improvement, we now have enough knowledge of the correct components to make high-quality steel, but we still don’t know how to efficiently treat metabolic bone disorders and age-related diseases, including osteoporosis.

Steel is an inert material, while the bone is a living material. Steel is a mineral material, while the bone is a biological material. The steel structure is altered with greater mechanical loads, while the bone is strengthened with greater mechanical loads. These are all differential characteristics that clearly show that bone mechanics does not necessarily follow the same classical rules of continuous damage mechanics as the remaining structures. This can be traced back to several little-known factors and mechanisms, according to which bone structure is maintained. By browsing the literature, one can find numerous studies that attempt to better clarify these mechanisms and identify the origin of the remodeling phenomenon, which could hopefully be equivalent to unlocking treatment stagnation for bone metabolic disorders, if such treatments exist. Except for neurons, bone cells are no different from other cells in the body that are constantly being renewed until the process is drastically stopped.

 

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Thus, the characterization of bone mechanical behavior does not depend on bone age, since bone is always “young”, but on the age of the cell division process, in addition to biological disorders and mechanical alterations to which the bone is subjected. bone. In addition to shape and appearance, bone is often subdivided into two main categories: robust, compact cortical bone and spongy, flexible trabecular bone, with many biological processes taking place and some, are yet to be elucidated.

Topics of this Edition:

Bone Remodeling Process – 1st Edition has following topics related to Mechanics, Biology, and Numerical Modeling 

1. Bone multiscale mechanics
2. Bone remodeling biology
3. Bone diseases and associated therapeutic solutions
4. Bone remodeling mathematical models
5. Bone and bone remodeling finite element modeling
6. Bone remodeling: Analysis, discussion, and perspectives

 

Key features:

  • Each chapter covers a core topic in bone biomechanics 
  • Provides a multidisciplinary view that effectively links orthopedics, cellular biology, mechanics, and computer simulation

 

Introduction:

The skeletal system plays an essential supporting role for the entire human body. It supports the forces of gravity and the stresses produced by daily activities. The bone thus optimizes and adapts its mass and geometry through the remodeling process. Mechanically, bone is a living nanocomposite material with a complex hierarchical structure that confers remarkable mechanical properties to the bone: lightweight, high stiffness, toughness, and resistance to fractures. The imbalance in bone remodeling is responsible for certain bone pathologies such as osteoporosis and Paget’s disease.

In particular, osteoporosis induces a loss of bone mass as well as a reduction in the quality of bone tissue (microarchitecture). The architecture and structural properties of the bone are thus degraded, which causes a decrease in bone quality and, therefore, an increased risk of fractures. Throughout life, bone is constantly remodeled through the complementary activities of resorption and formation, establishing what is known as the bone remodeling process (Fig. 1).

Cartoon representing the bone remodeling process with the osteoblast-mediated bone formation and the osteoclast-mediated bone resorption driven by osteocytes
Cartoon representing the bone remodeling process with the osteoblast-mediated bone formation and the osteoclast-mediated bone resorption driven by osteocytes

 

This process requires highly coordinated regulation in time and space to consistently maintain bone quality and quantity. This coordination mainly incorporates bone-resorbing osteoclasts and bone-forming osteoblasts, which are the two main players in the remodeling event. The delicate balance between the amount of bone resorbed and the subsequent amount deposited requires strict coordination of resorption and formation activities, which allows the generation of the appropriate number of osteoblasts in the remodeling area, which is called the coupling mechanism. Furthermore, the coordination between the activities of osteoblasts and osteoclasts involves other cells of various origins, in addition to various hormones, cytokines, and growth factors that closely intertwine cells of the osteoblast and osteoclast lineages through a complex network of interaction throughout the remodeling cycle.

Bone Remodeling Process pdf

 

The molecular mechanisms of the interaction between osteoblasts and osteoclasts, which occur in various stages of differentiation, represent one of the main problems in bone cell biology. This second chapter aims to establish a general picture of the remodeling process and the coupling mechanisms that guarantee the preservation of bone biomechanical integrity. Therefore, the first part of the second chapter deals with the origins, function and differentiation process of bone cells; the second part reviews the sequential remodeling phases within the basic multicellular unit; the third part focuses on the actors and factors of the intercellular signaling pathways and the coupling mechanism, and the fourth part presents the factors that affect bone biology. The introduction of PDF Bone Remodeling Process: Mechanics, Biology, and Numerical Modeling 1st Edition continues.

Bone Remodeling Process pdf free book also tells When bone biological mechanisms are altered, metabolic diseases manifest. This category of diseases encompasses a large group of disorders related to alterations in mineral homeostasis. Despite the fact that they occur quite frequently, there is still a lot to investigate. This has led to the development of various diagnostic procedures, including physical examination, family history, and imaging investigation. In clinical practice, metabolic diseases often remain silent until bone fractures, which represent the latest complication of such pathological conditions. Even so, the clinical history of back pain and nonspecific radiological characteristics may reflect the development of one of them. At this stage, understanding the different mechanisms and specific characteristics of each of these potentially debilitating conditions is crucial to providing the appropriate therapeutic solution. Bone can also be subject to neoplasms, and cancer cells can originate in bone tissue or bone marrow, or they can metastasize from a tumor that has developed elsewhere in the body. In these cases, the most common treatment options consist of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy or their combinations, depending on the type and extent of the tumor. However, specific cases can involve both a tumor and a metabolic disease. Therefore, research and appropriate therapeutic solutions may require various types of tests and imaging. To achieve this, the researchers had to start by investigating bone physiological behavior and adaptive processes in response to the surrounding physiological and mechanical environment.

 

Here you can download the free Bone Remodeling Process: Mechanics, Biology, and Numerical Modeling 1st Edition in pdf file by Rabeb Ben Kahla, Abdelwahed Barkaoui. You can easily get this medical book with a direct link.

 

 

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